Posts Tagged ‘extinction’

Feel Good Friday

Friday, April 17th, 2009

I love stories about intrepid species on the brink of oblivion due to human activities who manage, with or without our help, to make a comeback. (In fact, I named my company, Blue Crocus Consulting, after one of these creatures, the Chilean blue crocus.) That’s why I love the story in yesterday’s Science Daily about Caloplaca obamaea, a species of lichen recently discovered on Santa Rosa Island, California by Kerry Knudsen, a researcher at UC Riverside. The species barely survived intensive grazing by sheep, cattle, elk, and deer. However, the livestock have been removed, and according to Knudsen, when elk and deer, both of which were introduced to the island, are removed, Caloplaca obamae is expected to fully recover.

Note the species name: C. obamae is the first species of any kind to be named in honor of President Obama. Knudsen discovered the species in 2007 while doing a survey on the lichen diversity of Santa Rosa Island. “I made the final collections of C. obamae during the suspenseful final weeks of President Obama’s campaign for the United States presidency,” Knudsen said. He wrote his paper on the species during the “international jubilation” over Obama’s election. And, he pointed out, the final draft of his paper on C. obamae, which was published in the March issue of the journalOpuscula Philolichenum, ”was completed on the very day of President Obama’s inauguration.” 

Lichens, which grow slowly and live for many years, are composite organisms consisting of a fungus and an alga living together. There are approximately 17,000 known species of lichen worldwide, approximately 1,500 species in California, and more than 300 on Santa Rosa Island—almost as many as higher plants native to the island.

More feel good: Knudsen has no academic degrees, but one heck of an interest in lichens. A retired construction worker, he volunteers in the UCR herbarium and has published more than 70 research papers in peer-reviewed journals.  

Banking on Life

Monday, April 13th, 2009

To celebrate meeting its target of collecting seed of 10 percent of the world’s plants—about 30,000 species—for storage in the Millennium Seed Bank as insurance against extinction, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew is celebrating with the exhibit Banking on Life. The exhibit includes Rob Kesseler’s amazing electron micrographs of seeds and pollen. A slide show of some of these bizarre and beautiful structures is here.

The Millennium Seed Bank is the largest wild plant seed bank, with over a billion seeds collected from around the globe. The second phase of the program will aim to conserve an additional 15 percent of the world’s plant species by 2020. The estimated £100 million needed to accomplish this still need to be raised. Here’s how you can help.

Will Somebody Please Adopt This Tree?

Friday, December 12th, 2008

This year there seem to be more Fraser firs than ever for sale in my neighborhood, the Upper West Side of Manhattan. No big surprise. Woody plant expert Michael Dirr once called them the “Cadillac of Christmas Trees.” Fraser firs have a gorgeous pyramid shape and a profusion of soft, short needles arranged spirally around the branches. They also smell great. 

What is shocking is the stark contrast between the countless Fraser firs that line city streets, lending a festive air during the holidays, and the gray skeletons found in the tree’s native habitat. The species is endemic to the seven highest peaks in North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia; it is found nowhere else in the world. But in the past fifty years the number of mature Fraser firs on these mountains has declined by as much as 91 percent. The species is threatened with extinction in the wild largely because of an introduced insect, the balsam wooly adelgid, which first appeared in the southern Appalachians in 1957. The insect attacks by entering the trunk of a tree through fissures in its bark that develop as it ages; two to seven years later, the tree is dead.

Another threat to the Fraser fir: As temperatures rise due to global warming, it has nowhere to go. It can’t migrate upward to cooler, higher habitat because it already grows at high elevations on those seven mountains, in forests believed to be ice age relicts. When the last of the Pleistocene glaciers retreated north, Fraser fir was left stranded on these mountaintops, which have climates similar to those of Maine and Quebec. 

Someday it may be possible to see Fraser fir only on Christmas tree farms, or frigid Gotham streets.

The species is in the National Collection of Endangered Plants, under the auspices of the Center for Plant Conservation, a coalition of botanical gardens. But Fraser fir deserves to live wild and free, outside the cultivated confines of a farm, a garden collection, or a seed bank. For a number of years, the National Park Service reportedly tried to control the balsam wooly adelgid at Clingman’s Dome in Tennessee, using the only effective control known to date — coating each limb of each tree with a mild soap. But this proved too time consuming and costly and was given up.

Scientists and government officials have their hands full with invasive pests and imperiled plants, not to mention budget cuts and a host of other impediments. But citizens can fill the gap. Another endangered native conifer, the Florida torreya, has a group of activists, the Torreya Guardians, advocating and acting on its behalf. Friends of the Fraser fir anyone?